May 2023,


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Conference Proceedings


Final Scientific Program

Awarded Papers


The 9th Aluminium Two Thousand - 5th ICEB World Congress 

officially closed on May 16th, but it’s echo is still strong


Main criteria of the award ceremony: papers have to be complete from the scientific point of view.

This means that they represent a good theoretical approach, a good experimental validation and analysis of the results.

Other criteria are: evaluation of the quality of the paper on the basis of innovative/unpublished content, completeness, scientific approach, rigorous methodology, comprehensive discussion and interest for the audience.

Of course ,all selected topics are of great interest for companies, not only today but in the next future.


ICEB: The community of technologists!


4 papers have been awarded for the Extrusion Session - ICEB


Photo Eivani





"A modeling framework for the prediction of peripheral coarse grain structure formed during the hot extrusion of aluminum alloys"

by A. R. Eivani, School of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)


Peripheral coarse grain (PCG) structure seriously degrades extruded products of medium- and high-strength aluminum alloys in mechanical properties. The defect is caused by localized recrystallization occurring during hot extrusion and associated with a combination of factors, including alloy chemistry, homogenization treatment, microstructure prior to extrusion, extrusion conditions, die geometry and die surface condition. In this research, a modeling framework was developed, which took the effect of mentioned parameters on the microstructure of the extrudate into account. The framework was a combination of physical modeling for the effects of chemical composition and homogenization treatment, finite element analysis for the effect of deformation history and Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of grain growth. By comparison between the experimental results and model predictions, it was found that the model can acceptably predict the formation of PCG structure.







"Hot extrusion dies with conformal cooling channels produced by additive manufacturing" 

by R. Hölker, Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction, TU Dortmund University


The influence of local inner cooling in hot aluminum extrusion dies was investigated. For the manufacturing of the dies with conformal cooling channels, a layer-laminated manufacturing method and a laser melting process were applied. Extrusion trials with and without applying die cooling were performed. Numerical and experimental investigations revealed that, while maintaining the exit temperature of the extrudate, a distinct increase of the production speed up to 300 % can be realized, while the extrusion force increases only slightly. Visioplastic analyses revealed that the rough surfaces, originating from the laser melting, do not disturb the material flow in the welding chamber.


"Friction modelling in long bearing channels during multi-hole extrusion of aluminium alloy"

by S. MüllerTechnical University of Berlin, Extrusion Research and Development Center


Friction experiments between aluminum alloy EN AW-6060 and hot working steel were carried out at low normal pressure with the Torsion-Tribo-Test at the IVP ETH Zurich, as well as at high normal pressure using the new axial friction test at the ERDC TU Berlin.Microstructural analysis and hardness mapping of the friction boundary layer confirmed a variation of the mechanical properties under sticking conditions. Combining the friction experiment results and the thermo-mechanical behavior of this alloy, a new friction model was developed. Simulations of extrusion using multi-hole dies under different friction conditions were evaluated and the results compared. 






"Multi-objective optimization of the extrusion process"

 by B. Reggiani, University of Bologna, DIN


In the paper a multi-objective optimization of a porthole extrusion die used to manufactured a thick AA7003 round tube is presented. Eight competitive objective functions were selected aimed at increasing the seam weld quality, the die lifetime, the production rate and at restraining the die yielding and the peak process load with respect to an initial already optimized solution. Six geometric input variables were included in the optimization procedure (welding chamber and bridges height, ports width, undercut on ports, die entry angle, mandrel-bridges fillet radius) together with the ram speed. The multi-objective optimization was performed by means of modeFRONTIER® using meta-models generated over a selected set of experimental and numerical training designs.


Aluminium Two Thousand: The aluminium academy!

6 papers have been awarded for the Finishing, Welding, Automotive and Casting Sessions







"Interfacial phenomena in 7000 series alloys and their impact on the anodic oxide"

by J. M. Runge,CompCote International, Inc.,


The metallurgy of 7000 series aluminum alloys is presented as it relates to the base metal surface, the interface from which the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) grows. Phenomena which impact the growth and structure of the AAO are presented that explain the nature of interfacial instability between the aluminum alloy substrate and the AAO finish.  Aluminum oxidation cathodically protects alloying elements, which for the 7000 series alloys mean copper and especially zinc must be considered in order to understand interfacial discontinuities that can manifest as blistering and delamination between the base metal and the typically metallurgically integrated oxide finish. 


ridottaPhoto Kawahara 2 




"Acid Recovery from Metal Finishing Wastes by the Membrane"

 by T.Kawahara, Membrane Process Design Office


Acid recovery system by the membrane has been commercialized in order to separate various acids and concentrate  metals from metal finishing wastes. The driving force is pressure, so this process is named Pressure Dialysis referring to Diffusion Dialysis process. As acid permeates with water through the membrane, metals in waste are concentrated . One of the interesting membrane properties is higher concentration of recovered acid(Permeate) compared to concentration of  acid in waste (Concentrate) shown in Figure 1.

Pressure Dialysis is useful for improvement of product quality, resources recovery and pollution control by separation of purified acids ,reduction of waste volume and concentration of metals. Typical performance data , in case of regeneration of fine aluminum alloy machine parts anodizing liquor, is shown in Figure 2. Sulfuric acid is recovered and aluminum in waste is reutilized as coagulant.


ridottaPhoto Volk 




"Post Treatment of Anodising Layers Low Temperature and High Performing Ni-free Alternatives"

by P. Volk, SurTec International GmbH


For post treating anodising layers on aluminium, typically two different technologies are applied, the hot water sealing at 96-100 °C and the cold sealing using reactive salts to plug the pores of the anodic coating. Both applications show major disadvantages. Whereas the hot water sealing is extremely energy consuming due to the mandatory hot process temperature, the low temperature sealing processes typically apply nickel compounds being harmful to the environment. Nickel salts are toxic and carcinogenetic, having irreversible effects on the human body and health. Furthermore, nickel containing waste waters are difficult to treat, especially when also aluminium is present.
New nickel-free technologies have been developed accordingly, enabling a low temperature application yielding in major energy savings. The deposition of antisoluble compounds in the pores of the anodizing layer leads to best stability and corrosion protection, exceeding the performance of hot water sealing. The new process solutions as being non-toxic are less risky to store and to handle, assisting the safety at work. Implementing a new photometrical method for analysing the ingredients, process stability and production quality can be improved. In some cases, the pH-resistance of anodised surface can be enhanced, extending the application field of anodised aluminium. Moreover, the waste water treatment of rinses is carried out at pH 9-10, hence, can be done mutually with aluminium containing effluents.







"On the kinetics of Intermetallic Phase Formation during the Heat Treatment of Explosively Welded Al/Ti and Al/Cu Bimetals" 

by M. Soltanieh, Centre of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology


To investigate the growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds, diffusion couples of Al-Ti, multi-layer of Al-Ti and Al-Cu were fabricated by explosive welding process. The Al-Ti and Al-Cu samples were heated between 570 and 630 and 500oC, respectively, for different times between 1 and 260 hours. The samples were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy equipped with the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction technique. Intermetallic phases of TiAl3 and -Al2Cu, -AlCu, -Al3Cu4 and -Al4Cu9 were detected in Al-Ti and Al-Cu samples, respectively. The effect of explosive welding and rolling on the kinetics of intermetallic formation was investigated. Finally the activation energies calculated for the growth of the TiAl3, Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9. 








"Process Modelling in Aluminium Semi Production"

by J. Hirsch, Hydro Aluminium, R&D


New simulation tools of advanced material models integrated into process models have been developed in recent years that now are successfully applied in industrial Aluminium fabrication and application. These new methods are presented and their application in the processing of semi-finished products, like Aluminium sheet, e.g. for packaging or automotive applications. Examples are given for the through-process simulation of microstructures and properties, starting from DC ingot casting, pre-heating / homogenization, hot and cold rolling, final annealing, down to customer forming operations.
New physically based simulation models are introduced for advanced microstructure and texture evolution to predict specific material properties like flow stress, final strength,  formability and anisotropy, including process variations that affect their evolution through the whole production chain down to the final properties. It is demonstrated how these new methods help the Aluminium producing industries to improve their processes and products and is also useful to improve their know-how development, archiving and exploitation, their in-house training, research and development efficiency, manufacturing flexibility, equipment design and product quality control.



RIDOTTAPhoto Drezet





"Measurement and Modelling of Residual stresses: As cast stresses in AA7050 rolling plate ingots"

by J. M. Drezet, Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne


In the fabrication of aluminum rolling plates, the first step is the semi-continuous casting of a rectangular ingot. The most commonly used process is known as direct chill (DC) casting. This process gives rise to large thermally induced strains that lead to several types of casting defects (distortions, cold cracks, porosity, solidification cracking, etc.). During casting, thermally induced stresses are partially relieved by permanent deformation. When these residual stresses overcome the deformation limit of the alloy, cracks are generated either during solidification (hot tears) or during cooling (cold cracks). The formation of these cracks usually results in rejection of the cast part. Furthermore, thermally induced deformations are known to cause downstream processing issues during the sawing stage prior to rolling. For large ingot formats and high strength alloys, sawing becomes a delicate task owing to the risk of saw pinching or crack initiation ahead of the saw. To overcome these limitations, wipers are placed below the open mould during casting in order to eject the falling water from the ingot surface as depicted in fig. 1. Cooling intensity and thus internal stresses are significantly reduced and stress relief treatment right after casting can be suppressed.
As-cast stresses in the foot of the ingot corresponding to the transient start-up phase of the direct chill casting have been determined in aluminium alloy AA7050 rectangular ingots cast with and without a wiper. The efficiency of a wiper has been evaluated using both neutron diffraction measurements and a 3D numerical model simulating the stress generation during casting. The stress level is reduced by 33% when a wiper is used during casting and the stored elastic energy by 50%.